Definition of State
Equality
forced labour
Reservation
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minority rights
religious education
freedom of religion
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abolition of titles
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Discrimination
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seventh schedule
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panchayat
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enforceability
proportional representation
separate electorates
election commission
integration of states
universal adult suffrage

Speaker

K.T. Shah

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7.73.114
If Dr. Ambedkar is thinking of only that class to be eligible to the Presidency who have such rights, who have such interests and shares, while I would point out that such a course would be unfair, I hope he will realise that it is desirable to safeguard them against any temptation of the kind that this amendment tries to guard against.
7.73.6
: Clause (1) of article 47 gives some positive qualifications. What I propose to move is somewhat of a negative character, and therefore I thought that the two can go together.

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7.71.145
    I have not conceived my role in this House as a cussed opposition, to oppose things on every ground and on any ground. I take myself to be a friendly critic, always ready to offer constructive views with such brains or such ability as I have. It may be that they do not appeal to you for one reason or another. But here is a case in which I ve...
7.71.17
    In the environment in which we are living, in the traditions under which our judicial system has been evolved, I am afraid justice is a very costly luxury. It is really not the easy privilege of the poor man. Though you have provided a number of appeals, though you have provided a hierarchy of powers, you have also evolved, side by side, a m...

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8.86.83
: Mr. President, I move:     "That in the provision to clause (2) of article 68, the full-stop at the end of the sentence be substituted by a semi-colon and the following be added :-     'provided further that the People's House, elected after the Proclamation has ceased to operate, shall hold office for the balance of the period of 4 years for...
8.86.185
: Sir, I beg to move:     "That the full-stop at the end of sub-clause (c) of article 69 be substituted by a comma and the following be added :-     'on the advice of the Prime Minister, if such dissolution is earlier than the completion of the normal term as provided for in section 68(2); provided that the reasons given by the Prime Minister f...

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7.78.166
     And these, also, I would suggest should be elected rather than nominated, co-opted, or chosen by any other method. The whole body should be elected; and none but elected representatives should come there.
7.78.164
     Sir, this is in consonance with the general principle I am advocating, namely, that the Legislature shall be constituted only by elected representatives election being by whatever method you may agree to.

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8.93.62
    I suggest that it would be better if they were elected by adult franchise. But that is not to be. If you want to get the true reflex of the popular opinion in Kashmir, then you should have that through the Praja Sabha which is the legislature of the State though it may be very unpleasant for us to do so.
8.93.51
    It may be that not all the members may be within the jurisdiction where the King's writ runs. That, however, does not upset the technical position that the legislative body of Jammu and Kashmir exists, and that body has a right, according to the precedent which we have followed in these matters in the past, to elect at least half the number ...

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7.74.93
    Mr. Vice-President, Sir, I beg to move:     "That at the end of clause (4) of article 50, the words 'by both Houses of Parliament' be added."
7.74.325
      All right, sir.

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7.68.84
If you permit one, you will make it impossible to refuse admission to another. That means that in a public institution, any number or any section of people who are being educated there, if only one donor can be found for each to endow a particular scholarship, or to provide for some particular item of expenditure, let us say, library grant, or ...
7.68.209
:  Sir, I beg to move:   "That after article 22, the following new article be inserted :--  '22-A. All privileges, immunities or exemptions of heads of religious organisations shall be abolished' ."

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7.57.65
Monopolies develop much more artificially; monopolies develop much more by force of the very circumstances that competition is supposed to provide. In a competitive society, we are told, the only guarantee of the common good being served is that, by the mere process of competition amongst themselves, the competing producers will have so to reduc...
7.57.55
It is not enough to provide only for a sort of vague State control over them as the original clause does; it is not enough merely to say that they could be so utilised as to "sub serve the common good," every word of which is vague, undefined and undefinable, and capable of being twisted to such a sense in any court of law, before any tribunal b...

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7.79.58
     As I have stated already, I think it is but right and proper that we should have constituencies arranged or grouped in such a manner, formed in such units, as would secure the fullest possible representation on a Proportional Representation basis for every constituent part of the Union which may also enable every shade of political opinion ...
7.79.32
     My second point is in relation to the scheme of voting. There are, in later clauses, some other amendments which I have tabled, and which when they come up, I will discuss. I will, therefore, not take up the time of the House at this moment.

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8.97.172
I commend my amendment to the House.
8.97.170
But even while it prevails, and while this danger of something like over three-fourths of the population, if not more, being illiterate is before us, I think it is necessary to insert in this Constitution the positive requirement that the candidate will be at least literate; and that anyone who is not literate will be disqualified.

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7.79.51
    Amendments Nos. 1428 and 1429 also stand in my name. Can I move all these together?
7.79.26
     I feel, Sir, that if you make representation of very large numbers of voters to be concentrated on a single member, so to say, you may not have a correct verdict of the people on a multiplicity of issues that are usually placed before the electorate at a general election. 

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8.102.45
     Even if the interest and sinking fund charges are kept outside the annual vote, I do not see why the incidental charges, like brokerage or the management charges paid to Reserve Bank on the administration of the debt service should be included in this manner. I think it is really inappropriate to do so. But for the reason I just mentioned-t...
8.102.69
     I would therefore, like power to be left to Parliament hereafter to legislate-such legislation must be in the previous year-and say that, in the subsequent year, a given item shall not be deemed to be charged upon the revenues of India, or to be in the Consolidated Fund from that time onwards, so that it would be open to the vote of the Hou...

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9.116.138
I now come, Sir, to the next amendment, I mean, that which relates to those countries, our near neighbours in Asia, where large numbers of Indians have settled; and where, under the new upsurge of local nationalism, their  treatment is not all that can be desired. There is a feeling that in Burma, in Ceylon, or in Malaya, for instance, our citi...
9.116.126
Sir, I have been obliged to move these amendments, spread over a number of items, and dealing with a number of aspects, because I think a number of vital principles are involved. Would you permit me to simplify the entire series of amendment by formulating in general terms by idea why they have become necessary in the face of this  Draft, which ...

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7.76.242
I realise that I making myself somewhat unpopular with those who do not like the number or nature of the amendments that I have put forward, or are unable to follow in the multiplicity of the clauses that I have suggested the essence of those clauses. I very much regret that I cannot help doing so, because I do not judge that my function is mer...
7.76.241
Sir, this is just to clarify the idea that the Ministry is not only collectively responsible to the legislature, but also that it is homogeneously selected and that therefore it is guaranteed the confidence of the House. That is, I think, necessary to clarify in the Constitution itself in order to secure that the Ministry is not only stable, bu...

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9.137.148
: These amendments are taking the place of those which I have submitted to the original article and therefore, those are not to be moved.
9.137.176
Similarly, in the case of pending Bills or Bills which have been passed one. year before or at any time before this Constitution comes into force,, there should be no need, in my opinion, for any reservation, for the approval or the assent of the supreme executive authority in the land and create a kind of tension between the Central authority,...

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7.66.227
     This, Sir, ought not to be a controversial matter at all. We have proclaimed it time and again that the State in India is secular; and as such it should have no concern--I should think that would follow logically--with the affairs of any religion, with the profession of any particular faith, creed or belief.  
7.66.115
    Sir, I move:     "That in clause (1) of article 17, for the words Traffic in human beings and begar', the words `Traffic inhuman beings or their dedication in the name of religion to be Devadasis or be subject to other forms of enslavement and degradation and begar' be substituted."

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7.77.95
    The points that I am making may seem at first sight to be so obvious that it may appear somewhat improper to put them in the Constitution. I am free to admit, however, that, for instance, the first item in my amendment seems to be of that category, namely ability to read or write and express himself in the English language. At the present ti...
7.77.92
 : Mr. Vice-President, Sir, I beg to move:

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7.54.14
Mr. Vice-President, Sir, this amendment which stands in my name is as follows:     "That the following proviso be added to article 1:            'Provided that within a period not exceeding ten years of the date when this constitution comes into operation, the distinction or difference embodied in the several Schedules to this Constitution and...
7.54.2
Mr. Vice-President, Sir, I beg to move:     "That at the end of sub-clause (c) of clause (3) of article 1, the following be added: 'or as may agree to join or accede to or merge with the Union'."

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7.75.35
Finally, I have asked that a pension, or retirement allowance, be given to the Vice-President, as I had proposed it should be given to the President as well. I urged on a former occasion that, in this country, these high offices should not be the exclusive monopoly of the rich, who may not need any allowance or any provision for them in retirem...
7.75.30
It is therefore a simple proposition which I trust no one would take exception to, viz., that high Government officials, who have in their power executive or other influence to wield, should not be at the mercy or under the influence of any private individual who may seek his own advantage through that influence.

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8.101.199
    : Sir, I move:     "That in clause (1) of article 92, after the word 'expenditure' the words 'whether charged upon the revenues of India or on other account' be added."
8.101.128
      : Mr. President, the amendment proposed by Dr. Ambedkar makes certain innovations in the practice and procedure in dealing with the Budget, to which we have been accustomed all these years. This is what I may call the mechanics of getting the Budget passed through Parliament; and as such a matter of procedure rather than of principle.

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7.62.60
In the past, when the Government of the country was in the hands of an alien race, and that race itself was deliberately making exclusion against the children of the soil a common feature of this policy for holding this country by maintaining clubs, hospitals, schools and other such places for their own compatriots so to say, there could be som...
7.62.59
The excuse is often made that a given institution is maintained, or at least initially founded, by some donations of a munificent member of a given community, and that in his original deed of trust setting up the institution and providing the funds, he makes it a condition that only members of a given community or members of a given caste or su...

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7.81.125
     The qualifications I have suggested are quite modest, not very exacting and in no way offend against the basic principles of democracy, that is to say, every individual should have the right to choose his representative. That being conceded, it may yet be desirable that those who offer to represent should at least have the minimum qualific...
7.81.126
     There is a point which I have made in a part of this amendment that deals with proportional representation. I am afraid the House is not in favour of that idea and therefore I will not labour the point. It is liable to be ruled out of order and therefore I shall not myself press it.

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8.85.80
Sir, we had the other day an invitation graciously extended to foreign capital for investment in India, in which British capitalists were particularly singled out for so to say, special butterification. I fear I was unable to accept that attitude then nor can I accept this attitude today as regard the advantage at all likely to flow from closer...
8.85.79
I will be forgiven, I hope, by the House if I remind the Members of the tale of imperial preference during the last fifteen or twenty years to which this country had been subject. If imperial preference is to wear a new appearance now, as the British Commonwealth of Nations is going to wear a new designation, I cannot but warn this House agains...

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8.88.68
Such petitions may also be in regard to any financial matter or administrative acts. In all such cases, in the ordinary way, unless some privilege of this kind is provided, the people, who theoretically are supposed to be sovereign will have actually no right of presenting their grievances, or views. On any given matter to the sovereign legisla...
8.88.67
Sir, I consider this a very important right of the people, and a privilege of Parliament, if I may say so, that the people whom the Parliament is supposed to represent should have the right to approach directly the sovereign legislature, and place before it grievances, or cases which require Parliament's attention as the body concerned in any l...

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7.72.100
I further feel that the machinery necessary for transfer and retransfer of anybody who gets last on the roll, so to say, of the list of candidates above will be itself causing difficulties, compared to which the difficulties urged on a previous occasion by the mere force of numbers does not appear to me to be so great. The latter difficulty see...
7.72.3
: My reply to that point of order is clear. I had foreseen this objection and that is why I have worded my amendment in such a manner that this particular objection will not apply. The principle of complete separation of powers between the various organs of Government is rejected. But that does not preclude the President, even if these powers a...

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7.53.35
Thank you. If the assurance given by some friends is correct, I hope the House would have no objection to accept this amendment. I trust that those friends here who are very loud in this assertion will induce others in the House to set aside party barriers, and support me in this promising description, this encouraging epithet of the State.
7.53.37
I am sure this can be achieved without any violation of peaceful and orderly progress. I am sure that there is no need to fear in the implications of this term the possibility of a violent revolution resulting in the disestablishment of vested interests. Those who recognise the essential justice in this term, those who think with me that sociali...

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8.89.110
     The words "at the expiry of six weeks, etc. etc.", will be all gone.
8.89.114
     Secondly, if a longer period or duration appears necessary, in any case within that period, the Parliament must be called; and either house must consider the Ordinance, and unless approved by each House by a special resolution the ordinance must be deemed forthwith to cease to operate.

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8.90.28
     The amended proposition would read:     "Every judge of the Supreme Court shall be appointed by the President by warrant under his hand and seal after consultation with the Council of States and such of the judges of the Supreme Court and of the High Courts in the States as may be necessary for the purpose and shall hold office until he at...
8.90.29
     Sir, this is an amendment seeking to make the appointment of Judges free from any particular influence. My amendment is that the President, if he makes the appointment, will naturally do so on the advice of the Prime Minister. In my opinion, Sir, if I may so with all respect, this Constitution concentrates so much power and influence in th...

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7.64.36
Allowing that is the interpretation, or that is the justification for adding this word "expression", I still do not see why freedom of worship should have been excluded. I am not particularly a very worshipful man myself. Certainly I do not indulge in any overt acts of worship or adoration. But I think a vast majority of people feel the need and...
7.64.128
Mr. Vice-President, Sir, I beg to move:     "That the following new clause be added after clause(1) of article 13:     'Liberty of the person is guaranteed. No person shall be deprived of his life, nor be arrested or detained in custody, or imprisoned, except according to due process of law, nor shall any person be denied equality before the law...

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9.119.102
  For all these reasons, it is evident that this compromise draft will not really serve any purpose, let alone the purpose of making the Second chamber useless in itself and dangerous in its possibilities, and will not make the Second Chamber a part of the machinery that would add weight to our Constitution, to the dignity of the deliberations i...
9.119.92
In this case, as it has already been pointed out, the limitation on the total strength may become incongruous, in view of the strength of the population in the different States; and the actual strength of a Second Chamber in a State may be such as to be perhaps incompatible with or unworkable along with the Lower Chamber.

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8.87.275
Sir, I move :"That after clause (4) of article 85, the following new clause be inserted :-'(5) In all matters of privilege of either House of Parliament or of members thereof the House concerned shall be the sole judge and any order, decree or sentence duly passed by that House shall be enforced by the officers or under the authority thereof.'"
8.87.6
I also suggest that the scale of expenditure should be laid down so that there is no abuse of this privilege. I have suggested that election expenses be met out of the public treasury both at the general election and at the bye election. I have also added the safeguard that any candidate who secures less than 10 per cent. of the votes cast cann...

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11.158.82
    I hold, therefore, that this Constitution is not, in the fullness of the sense, a real, working, effective democracy that the people of India had been led to expect they have achieved.
11.158.77
    Having admitted this, I feel myself at liberty to point out still the defects, both of form and of principle, which, in my opinion, mar this Constitution and do not make it what we had hoped it would be. As already stated, I have tried to make my amendments and suggestions of principle and of root, rather than of mere superficial alterations...

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8.95.147
There is of course a certain provision with regard to resignation voluntarily or other contingencies occurring whereby the Governor may be removed. But, subject to that, and therefore to the entire Constitution, the period should be the whole period and not at the pleasure of the President. 
8.95.152
:Sir, I move:"That is clause (b) of the proviso to article 132, after the word 'Constitution', in line 21, the words 'or if found guilty of treason, or any offence against the safety, security or integrity of the Union', be inserted."

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7.60.81
We are, I admit, living today in a heavy atmosphere ofall-round distrust and suspicion. And in that atmosphere, it is impossible to find people in any country willing toexpose their own national security and independence, bytaking the first step towards real disarmament. For us,however, in this country, I venture to submit to this House,there ha...
7.60.86
And Sir, the mischief of this state of affairs does notend there. Modern armaments are sohighly specialised, partsof these weapons and vehicles and instruments are soextremely standardised and inter-changeable, that once youbegin to get your supplies of materials for warfare from aparticular source, we shall be bound for ever to thatparticular s...

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7.63.40
 As I started by saying, this does not at all mean that you shall make a categorical discrimination against the citizens of other countries, though there are plenty of examples of that kind even in the existing Constitutions of some of the leading countries of the world. We would certainly not be starting on a new track altogether, even if we we...
7.63.105
 On the other hand, there seems to me to be a pull--somewhat sub-conscious pull, if I may say so--in favour of particular religions or denominations, whose institutions, whose endowments, whose foundations, are sought to be protected and kept exclusive by making exceptions of this kind. After all, this clause (4) is an exception to the main prin...

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9.118.202
     I now go on further to give illustration of my argument, of my general. thesis in connection with this article, and show how the article is likely to operate--perhaps unintentionally and inadvertantly--in a manner that may not have been intended by the authors and sponsors of this proposition.
9.118.209
     It has been said, Sir, that the new Constitution we are drafting is likely to prove a paradise for lawyers. Here is another illustration of it. Even in the transitional period to which alone we are assured on such high authority it relates, even during this period, there are going to be provisions which will provide ample occupation and for...

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7.67.43
I was only trying to say that I know the fate of my amendments in advance; but I would not make it worse by citing examples, which might affect particular classes, and might incur for me their displeasure. If I have said anything improper I am sorry and I would apologize for it.
7.67.41
I have no desire as observed already, to cite illustrations. I know in advance the fate of my amendment, and, therefore, it is unnecessary for me to make the House wiser than it is by citing examples, and incurring for me the further displeasure of particular classes affected thereby.

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7.61.66
The new amendment to the Rules tries to shut out amendments which are supposed to be, or which are taken to be, merely verbal, grammatical, or formal. Verbal amendments, Sir, have been made often, not only by the other Members of this House, but also by the draftsmen themselves. If such a rule is to be in operation against only those who have n...
7.61.76
Sir, I can give you innumerable examples where time has been taken and rightly taken. Why, the fundamental constitution of the country should be studied, should be considered, should be viewed from every angle before it is passed. And that will not be served, I repeat, Sir, by your hurrying through in this manner. If, therefore, it is open to m...

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7.49.153
Here again is a case in which in regard to not only individuals, but also communities, the provinces and the whole Union, I should like to emphasise the Obligations chapter as much as, if not more than, the chapter of Rights. The individual has his rights, and I for one shall never agree to any suggestion of any infraction of those rights. But, ...
7.49.150
In the various items of the Fundamental Rights which will come up for detailed discussion later on I shall have, I hope, an opportunity to suggest amendments and redress the omission or correct the distortion this Draft suffers from on this most important subject.

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7.56.56
There may be many in this House - I am sure Dr. Ambedkar is the foremost amongst them - who will remember that when the late Gopal Krishna Gokhale first brought forward the Bill for compulsory primary education, the then officials of the then Government of India gave all sorts of reasons why such a step was simply impracticable. One of the argum...
7.56.58
There is only one more word that I have to say and I have done. My Honourable Friend Mr. Rohini Kumar Chaudhary expressed his keen sense of appreciation yesterday for the gang of thieves who are operating between Calcutta and Delhi, and he warned me they may do so also between Bombay and Delhi. I am deeply grateful for the solicitude that he had...

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8.96.26
, I beg to move:"That in clause (1) of Article 143, after the word 'head’ a comma be placed and the words 'who shall be responsible to the Governor and ‘shall' be inserted and the word ‘to’ be deleted."
8.96.142
As Mr. Kamath has tried to explain the genesis of this motion, may I be permitted to amplify a little bit all the same by pointing out that on a previous occasion, in connection with the President and the Prime Minister of the Union of India, I had tried to bring forward an Amendment of this nature, and that Amendment was rejected. At the time ...

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9.120.150
    If you accept this idea, as I hope the sponsors of the article will accept, a provision of this kind, worded as they like, suited to the occasion will amply meet the case. I think much of the difficulty that the previous speakers have referred to, much of the apprehensions that many of us feel as regards the unnecessary extension of the exec...
9.120.141
Sir, I have as strong an objection as many of the speakers who have addressed this House on this subject to arming the President with such extraordinary powers extending even to the suspension of the one solitary right which by the express terms of the Constitution is guaranteed, namely, the right to move the Supreme Court for certain prerogativ...

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7.82.67
     The amended article would then read:     "All executive action of the Government of India shall be expressed to be taken in the name of the Government of India.      Orders and other instruments made and executed in the name of the Government of India shall be authenticated in such manner as may be specified in rules to be made by the Coun...
7.82.50
     So far as his emoluments are concerned, I think it would be proper if his emoluments are left not to be determined by order of the President, but by an act of Parliament as those the Ministers. The President would, it is quite true, act on the advice of the Ministers; but even so the salary and allowances of the Attorney-General should be ...

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7.69.18
 You cannot hit at this amendment, you cannot negative it, without at the same time annulling the remaining portion of the clause, namely, conservation of a static position. But development is more progressive, more dynamic; and as such should commend itself to those who have the drafting and piloting of the Constitution in their hands.
7.69.12
First part is covered by Dr. Ambedkar's amendment. But I would like to move the second part.

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9.115.122
Now, that is a consideration which fills me, for one, with great apprehension for the future. I am not prepared to say that there should be an utterly unconditional or unlimited power even under the Constitution to the executive to borrow up to what limits and in what manner it likes whether at home or abroad. As you know, in the past I leave p...
9.115.123
As I have said before, while I have always suggested that the supreme power should be vested in Parliament here is an instance in which, by the Constitution, I would limit the power even of Parliament to allow any borrowing within and much more so outside the country. This article, therefore, cannot be viewed too seriously, and I would appeal t...

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9.111.147
It seems to me, incidentally, that this article is inconsistent in spirit, if not in letter, with the articles previously passed, which require that while all other powers and functions may be arrogated to himself by the President, or may be, delegated to some other authority named by him, the powers and authority of the High Courts will not be...
9.111.148
That, surely, should not have been the intention, and that should not be the purpose of a provision like this in the Constitution. The moment you introduce a provision like this in our Constitution, the moment you provide that the right to move the Supreme Court which has been guaranteed by a previous article shall be suspended by an order of t...

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8.100.216
 Mr. President, Sir, I beg to move:     "That in article 204, for the word 'shall' the word 'may' be substituted."
8.100.217
The amended article would read thus:    "If the High Court is satisfied that a case pending in a court subordinate to it involves a substantial question of law as to the interpretation of this Constitution, it may withdraw the case to itself dispose of the same.”     Explanation.-In this article, 'High Court' includes a court of final jurisdicti...

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9.109.251
I feel, Sir, that the same tendency is noticeable in another part of this amendment where a Proclamation of Emergency is said to be possible to extend or uphold if by Resolution the two Houses of Parliament approve of it. There is, however, no provision, so far as I can see, for the Houses being able to disapprove or reject the Proclamation, to...
9.109.247
 : Mr. President, I have been viewing the tendency, noticeable throughout this Draft Constitution, of arming the Central Executive Government with excessive authority, with deep misgivings. In this particular clause there seems to be incorporated even stronger authority and worse features of centralised authority than was found in the original ...

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8.98.61
     It is possible that you have entrusted powers of this kind to the Central Government of Legislature. On that basis, you may have a feeling of some kind of justice being given to the parties complaining. For my part, I am afraid that, by their very nature, the Central Government or the Central Legislature may be suspected of being actuated b...
8.98.60
     Generally speaking sir, I think it is of the same character and fraught with the same consequences as the communal evil which has resulted in the partition of the country. Inter-provincial jealousies and rivalries, which are already showing themselves in variety of ways, would mean a menace to the country's integrity and the maintenance of ...

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8.94.95
:Sir, the principle of this having been rejected by the House earlier, I do not want to move it.Article 128
8.94.129
: Sir, I beg to move :     "That in clause (1) of article 130, for the word 'may' the word 'shall' be substituted."

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3.21.15
No, Sir.
3.21.13
But as this raises many complicated issues, I do not move it but suggest that this should go back to the Advisory Committee.

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8.99.234
In that case I shall not move it. (Amendment 2562 was not moved.)*Article 192(Amendments 2578 to 2580 were not moved.)
8.99.230
Yes, Sir.

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7.70.2
 Mr. Vice-President, Sir, I beg to move: "That under the heading "Right to Property" the following new article be added:'23-A. All forms of natural wealth, such as land, forests, mines and minerals, waters of rivers, lakes or seas surrounding the coasts of the Union shall belong to the people of India. No private property shall be allowed in any...
7.70.6
  :There is a misapprehension on the part of Mr. Das. This does not talk of nationalising all existing private property. I am only enunciating a principle which may in legal parlance be called the right of eminent domain of the State. Therefore it is merely an assertion that natural wealth belongs to the people, to the State. That does not mean ...

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3.19.128
I do not move my amendment (No.18 of Supplementary List II ) at this stage.

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3.20.10
I do not propose to move the amendments in my name.
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