Definition of State
Equality
forced labour
Reservation
Constitutional remedies
right to property
minority rights
religious education
freedom of religion
child labour
untouchability
due process
personal liberty
right to life
freedom of speech
right to freedom
abolition of titles
equality of opportunity
Discrimination
preventive detention
double jeopardy
union list
finance commission
fiscal federalism
taxation
residuary power
union of states
kashmir
seventh schedule
state list
emergency
parliamentary executive
supreme court
high court
judiciary
governor
powers of president
legislature
judicial review
public health
gender
international relations
separation of powers
protection of monuments
cow slaughter
social justice
compulsory education
cottage industry
public assistance
local government
panchayat
natural resources
enforceability
proportional representation
separate electorates
election commission
integration of states
universal adult suffrage

Speaker

K.T. Shah

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7.73.42
 Mr. Vice-President, Sir, I beg to move:     "That the following new clause (c) to the Explanation of clause (2) of article 47 be added:'(c) Any person elected President shall, before he enters upon the functions and responsibilities of his office declare and divest himself of all his right, title, share, property and interest in any enterprise,...
7.73.170
This, Sir, is another novel idea which is not found in the American Constitution, and as such it is also trying to break new ground. I trust that, however, will not be regarded as an argument in itself against my motion, that since even the wise Americans have not provided for this contingency, we in India need not do so.

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7.71.142
    If you seriously, if you sincerely, if you really desire that the people shall be sovereign, if you want that the people be consulted in any emergency when your two organs of power, viz., the Legislature and the Executive, are unable to agree, then the test will lie in your readiness to consult the people. It may be that the emergency may be...
7.71.119
    I, therefore, put forward this point No. 1 that it would be no answer to, to my amendment to say that it is not in harmony with the basic principle of this Constitution namely, that of the Parliamentary Government, and not of the Presidential kind and as such it need not be discussed. I submit that it can be very well fitted in even in the t...

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8.86.251
I therefore suggest that the right of speaking and taking part in the proceedings, as well as becoming members of any committee, should also go with the right to vote; provided that the party is an elected member of the House. I say definitely "elected member" because these experts, for instance, who are, under the provisions of the article ado...
8.86.92
: I am quite willing to make that five.

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7.78.65
      Take yet another illustration, Social Services, which do not include public utilities presumably: and then again "Public administration". I for one do not understand what is meant by "Public Administration," in this connection of composing a legislative body. Is it intended to bring in the Civil Service? By common consent it is thought bes...
7.78.64
  Thank you, Sir. Take "Engineering". It is much more "Technology" or what used to be called in the United States Technocracy, which might be mentioned instead of Engineering. It would include much more than" Engineering". As it stands, it creates a needless anomaly.

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8.93.29
    I have, perhaps to my own misfortune, been associated with this matter even after the developments of the last few years; and in the course of this argument, I shall try and place before you, Sir, certain considerations which I trust will show you, that if I say anything on the subject I am not saying it from merely superficial newspaper hea...
8.93.32
By calling it the State of Kashmir only you are perpetrating or perpetuating an error, which according to the honourable the Mover, has apparently happened in all our documents. May I ask, Sir, if we have made a mistake in the first instance if we have been carried away by the importance of one section of the State, by the importance of the pers...

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7.74.325
      All right, sir.
7.74.51
    Am I to move only one of them?

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7.68.211
I do not of course object to the nominal or formal privilege enjoyed by them of titles, precedence, honorifies and the like. Some of these Heads of Religion are considered to be equal in rank to ruling princes. They are accordingly given a salute of eleven guns, at their own cost of course if fired; and are in a position to demand that that hon...
7.68.131
Now take the clause about Institutions maintained from State funds. I for one find it very difficult to understand what 'funds' are meant here as intended by the draftsman for the maintenance of institutions. I am, of course, not anxious to read Bhagvat before buffaloes. But I must say that in trying to understand the meaning of this article, I...

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7.57.51
Take mines and mineral wealth. Mines and mineral wealth, as everybody knows, are an exhaustible, - a wasting asset. Unfortunately, these, instead of having been guarded and properly protected and kept for the community to be utilised in a very economical and thrifty manner, have been made over to individual profit-seeking concession-holders and ...
7.57.63
I think, Sir, that monopolies by themselves are very offensive to the common good. In every country whose history is recorded, wherever they have manifested themselves, there have been cries of protest against their presence. Some of the most important decisions which have contributed materially to the growth of the English Constitution have bee...

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8.102.29
     I commend these amendments to the House. (Amendments Nos. 1699 and 1700 were not moved.)
8.102.185
     In the present provision I would like to insert a corresponding safeguard against similar misuse or excessive use of Indian revenues in war-like operations outside the frontiers of India. This article relates to excess grants; and if such money is used outside the frontiers of India, then I would like to provide a safeguard of some kind. I ...

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7.79.58
     As I have stated already, I think it is but right and proper that we should have constituencies arranged or grouped in such a manner, formed in such units, as would secure the fullest possible representation on a Proportional Representation basis for every constituent part of the Union which may also enable every shade of political opinion ...
7.79.30
     Anybody interested primarily in expediting things, and in governing the country according to a few people's will naturally not like large numbers of deliberation, and the larger the time taken in passing laws or resolutions, representatives. The larger the number the greater, of course, is the chance, of deliberation, and the larger the tim...

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7.79.24
     The first is to avoid a maximum number of representatives being fixed by the constitution for the People's House of Representatives. It is, I think, not in accord with the correct principle of popular representation that it must be the people's voice which must be the final authority in the governance of a country calling itself a democrac...
7.79.86
     Sir, I commend it to the House.

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8.97.345
This, however, does not make holding of a post of profit under Government the less a disqualification. I want, however, to add certain other things, which are, as we notice, far more likely to be sources of temptation to sacrifice public interest to private advantage, than mere holding of an office of profit. Whatever may have been the conditio...
8.97.231
As the House is aware, it is possible that between two sessions of a State Legislature there may be as much as six months. Within a period of six months, it is not inconceivable that a situation may arise, that could not be dealt with except by deliberation and action of the Legislature itself. There may be factors at work, however, whereby the...

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9.116.137
Sir, here is a point, which, may I say with all respect, does not seem to me to be sufficiently borne in mind by  the Drafting Committee; and perhaps the amendment of the kind that I have suggested, or some other amendment  in that sense may be necessary to cover that position. I frankly confess, with the views that have been expressed from the ...
9.116.120
Then there is my amendment No. 152 in today's list (List V of Third Week).

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9.137.169
I say the same thing with regard to public utility and social services which may have been hitherto- operated by private individuals, corporations or firms and which. according to general principles, should not have been left in their hands. But since they have been there, let us compensate them, provided that these have not been held for a per...
9.137.156
Sir, I move :     'That in amendment No. 369 of List VII (Seventh Week), in clause (6) of the article 24, for the words 'not more than one year' the words 'at any time' be substituted."

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7.76.127
I am not so foolish as to believe that this very guarded statement--I cannot call it an assurance,--would be strictly acted upon, particularly as I have the misfortune to put forward that idea. Taking, however, the Draftsman to be also the spokesman in this matter, may I venture to remind him of his very guarded and carefully worded assurance--...
7.76.118
Sir, with regard to amendment No. 1299, I would like it to be realised that, ordinarily, the advice that any Minister may have tendered to the President should be regarded as strictly confidential, and, therefore, not open to enquiry in any ordinary manner. But if and when it should happen that either the President or any Minister is on trial, ...

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7.66.231
     Accordingly I am suggesting that "The State in India being secular shall have no concern with any religion, creed or profession of faith". I am again and again emphasis in g this aspect of religion because that is by its very essence, a non-worldly activity, and as such the State which is--may I say it without any disrespect--essentially an...
7.66.228
     By this I do not wish to suggest that the neutrality of the State in matters of religion should mean the utter ignorance or neglect of institutions or services which may, in the name of religion or belief, be conducted by people professing a particular form of faith. All I wish to say is that with the actual profession of faith or belief, t...

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7.77.209
 Sir, I beg to move:
7.77.65
 Mr. Vice-President, Sir, I beg to move:

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7.54.2
Mr. Vice-President, Sir, I beg to move:     "That at the end of sub-clause (c) of clause (3) of article 1, the following be added: 'or as may agree to join or accede to or merge with the Union'."
7.54.4
I think this is a very simple amendment. It tries to include within the territories of the Union not only those which are at present in it, or which, under the provisions of this Article, come under its scope; but also those which after the Constitution is passed may agree to join, or accede to, or merge with, the Union. I confess that I am not...

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7.75.127
 : Mr. Vice-President, Sir, I beg to move that in article 57 after the words "the functions of the President" the words "or Vice-President" be added.     The article as amended would then read as follows:--     "Parliament may make such provision as it thinks fit for the discharge of the functions of the President or Vice-President in any conti...
7.75.47
The result would be that the holders of big offices may be removed from their offices for given reasons. All the items on which I desire that such office holders may be removed from their office, or may be declared unqualified, are those which occur not in one but in several Constitutions of leading nations, and several more of subordinate bodi...

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8.101.132
    These are sound principles implicit in this amendment. The other parts of the motion, that is to say, the introduction of Votes on Account and Votes on Credit appear to me to be matters, more of procedure, or practical detail, or parliamentary time-table, to get the Budget passed through Parliament in due time. This may, I think, be more con...
8.101.189
Sir, there are two points in this amendment which I would like to place before the House. In the first place the clause as it stands makes the Budget Presented by the President only, as it were, or caused to be presented to Parliament by the President. The House has accepted the principle that all executive action of the Government of India shal...

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8.85.77
The Honourable the Prime Minister declared in his speech that he is not a good bargainer. I am afraid perhaps that is true. But I must also remind the House that Britain is a good bargainer, and that British statesmen are such good bargainers who by their appearance, by their suavity and by their diplomacy may seem to suggest that bargaining is...
8.85.62
Mr. President, Sir, sponsored as this resolution is by the Leader of the House, and supported as it is by the powerful advocacy of Pandit Kunzru, one feels a natural hesitation in opposing its substance. Nevertheless, I will try to place before this House a few arguments, under three main heads, according to which, in my opinion, this House wou...

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7.81.125
     The qualifications I have suggested are quite modest, not very exacting and in no way offend against the basic principles of democracy, that is to say, every individual should have the right to choose his representative. That being conceded, it may yet be desirable that those who offer to represent should at least have the minimum qualific...
7.81.123
     There are several points in amendment No. 2247 which have, on an earlier occasion, been brought before the House. They refer to the disqualifications and qualifications which were stated while discussing the composition of the Central Legislature. The House apparently did not agree with me and on that occasion, at any rate, rejected my pro...

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7.62.93
I have, of course, not included in my amendment the length of years, the term of years for which some such special treatment may be given. That may be determined by the circumstances of the day. I only want to draw your attention to the fact that there are classes of our citizens who may need through no fault of theirs, some special treatment i...
7.62.61
Our Constitution should make it expressly clear that all citizens being equal, their public institutions, and places of public resort, etc., which I have mentioned in my amendment, should be quite open, and must be open, to all those who are citizens of the country. There may be, it is possible, some claim that any particular class or community...

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7.53.38
I have one more word to add. As I said at the very beginning this is not merely an addition or amendment to correct legal technicality, or make a factual change, but an aspiration and also a description of present facts. There are the words "shall be" in the draft itself. I therefore take my stand on the term "shall be", and read in them a promi...
7.53.37
I am sure this can be achieved without any violation of peaceful and orderly progress. I am sure that there is no need to fear in the implications of this term the possibility of a violent revolution resulting in the disestablishment of vested interests. Those who recognise the essential justice in this term, those who think with me that sociali...

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8.88.78
No doubt these are merely procedural matters, which can be regulated primarily by each House or Parliament by rules. But if injunctions of this kind are incorporated in the Constitution itself, my amendment is necessary, as it will help to economise time. I commend it for the acceptance of the House.
8.88.71
I do not quite like the word `petition' myself; but, as it has been used and as it is of popular use, in this matter I have adopted the word in presenting this part of my amendment. Another amendment had been tabled by me, which I have however not moved, in which I was seeking to reverse the process, namely that Parliament should also, on given...

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7.72.100
I further feel that the machinery necessary for transfer and retransfer of anybody who gets last on the roll, so to say, of the list of candidates above will be itself causing difficulties, compared to which the difficulties urged on a previous occasion by the mere force of numbers does not appear to me to be so great. The latter difficulty see...
7.72.5
: Sir, I have moved already:     "That for article 43, the following be substituted:---     `43. The President shall be elected by the adult citizens of India, voting by secret ballot, in each constituent part of the Union.' "

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8.89.116
     It is true that though the nominal authority which makes the Ordinance, is that of the President, he would be acting only on the advice of the Prime Minister and the Prime Minister naturally would be responsible to Parliament, where the ordinary remedies of responsible Ministries may take effect. Inspite of this factor, I would not leave i...
8.89.188
     Though it has not even now found acceptance in this constitution in the fullness of form that I would have desired, I am sure that a majority even in this House does not object in principle to this proposition. I have, however, made it a much wider proposition. In this amendment: it is not merely the separation of the Judiciary from the Ex...

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8.90.30
     The suggestion has further this argument in its support that just as in regard to the financial powers the Lower House or the House of People is made supreme, so in matters of this kind, in matters of making high appointments as a pure consideration of balance of power I suggest that the Council of States should be associated, if only to a...
8.90.28
     The amended proposition would read:     "Every judge of the Supreme Court shall be appointed by the President by warrant under his hand and seal after consultation with the Council of States and such of the judges of the Supreme Court and of the High Courts in the States as may be necessary for the purpose and shall hold office until he at...

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9.119.102
  For all these reasons, it is evident that this compromise draft will not really serve any purpose, let alone the purpose of making the Second chamber useless in itself and dangerous in its possibilities, and will not make the Second Chamber a part of the machinery that would add weight to our Constitution, to the dignity of the deliberations i...
9.119.26
 I submit that my earlier amendments relate to the proportions e.g., one-fifth instead of one-third. These proportions are different under the compromise new draft. It would be better both from the point of saving the time of the House, as well as for clarifying issues if at the time of general discussion on the article these points are brought ...

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7.64.132
I, therefore, want to mention categorically in this Constitution that the liberty of the person shall be respected, shall be guaranteed by law, and that no person shall be arrested, detained or imprisoned without due process of law. That process it is for you to provide. That process it is for laws made under this Constitution to lay down. And i...
7.64.131
We have in this Constitution as we have in many other Constitutions provisions relating to a state of emergency where the normal Constitution is suspended. I am not at all enamoured of these extraordinary exceptions to the working of constitutions; but even I might conceive that in moments of emergency it may be necessary, however regrettable it...

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8.87.3
Sir, I beg to move:     "That after article 72, the following new articles be inserted :-`72-B. A Member of Parliament may vacate his seat by resignation in writing addressed to the Speaker of the People's House, or to the Chairman of the Council of States, as the case may be. Any Member of Parliament who accepts any office or post carrying a s...
8.87.182
I move :"That after clause (3) of article 82, the following new clause be inserted :-'(4) No one who is unable to read or write or speak the National Language of India after ten years from the day this Constitution comes into operation shall be entitled to be a candidate for, or offer himself to be elected to, a seat in either House of Parliament."

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11.158.77
    Having admitted this, I feel myself at liberty to point out still the defects, both of form and of principle, which, in my opinion, mar this Constitution and do not make it what we had hoped it would be. As already stated, I have tried to make my amendments and suggestions of principle and of root, rather than of mere superficial alterations...
11.158.79
    Several suggestions had been brought forward at the proper movement regarding, for instance, the right to consult the people by means of a Referendum, or the power of the people to initiate radical legislation to make the Constitution really democratic. But they have been all negatived. The excuse has been given that we are not yet ready for...

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8.95.152
:Sir, I move:"That is clause (b) of the proviso to article 132, after the word 'Constitution', in line 21, the words 'or if found guilty of treason, or any offence against the safety, security or integrity of the Union', be inserted."
8.95.139
:Is my amendment No. 2034 not to be moved? It suggests that the governor shall be irremovable and therefore cannot be included under the amendment moved.

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7.60.131
Sir, on an earlier occasion, while moving an amendmentI pointed out that the Constitution seems to leave outcompletely the Obligations side of human behaviour, andinsists more and more.... .
7.60.133
I am quite willing to agree to thesuggestion that this may stand over. I would only point outto my honourable Friend that it is not merely a particularsection or sections which include Obligations that wouldjustify a change in heading. I would like by this change inthe title to draw attention to an aspect of the Constitutionwhich has been omitt...

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7.63.36
  I beg to move:     That in clause (2) of Article 10, after the words 'place of birth' the words `in India' be added.     The clause as proposed to be amended by me would read:     "No citizen shall, on grounds only of religion, race, caste, sex, descent, place of birth in India, or any of them be ineligible for any office under the State."
7.63.38
 Sir, it is unnecessary to point out that the citizens or the nationals of this country have been discriminated against, and discriminated against very shamefully, in certain parts of the commonwealth as it is called now, like South Africa. Elsewhere, if they do not say so openly in the Constitution, if they do not say so by any specific legisla...

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9.118.204
     Then it goes on to say that the order may relate to the "composition of the chamber or chambers of the legislatures." I do not understand what is meant by the composition of the chambers. Do you mean by composition, the various representative capacity of the members of the Chambers ?
9.118.209
     It has been said, Sir, that the new Constitution we are drafting is likely to prove a paradise for lawyers. Here is another illustration of it. Even in the transitional period to which alone we are assured on such high authority it relates, even during this period, there are going to be provisions which will provide ample occupation and for...

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7.67.40
The facts are well-known, however, to those who have at all discerned in this matter not only that the heads of religions in the name of their religion claim exemption from income-tax out of the receipts of their own domain, but also right of any further gains that they may make by open or illicit trading, speculation, investments, or what not. ...
7.67.39
I do not wish to hurt anybody's feelings by citing specific examples of religious heads, or those claiming to be acting in the name of religion, carrying on a number of worldly activities of a most undersirable kind. They not only minister to the benefit or aggrandisement of the particular sect or class to which they belong, but, more often than...

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7.49.157
In the chapter relating to the distribution of financial resource and obligations, to which allusion was made this morning; in the chapter relating to the distribution of powers between the provinces or the units and the Union, in the question of the emergency powers, and so on, always there is a hint, behind the scenes so to say, there seems to...
7.49.158
I am not inclined, Sir, to invite a repetition of your bell though I have a lot more to say. Even if you are gracious enough to extend the time, I would not be able to say it within this time limit. I would, therefore, reserve what I have to say to the time when the amendments come up for discussion. Thank you.

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7.61.75
Sir, I would like to put it from another angle. After all, you have very learned technical draftsmen at your service. Ask them, enquire of them enquire even of this Chairman of the Drafting Committee itself whether other countries, who have had to make their constitution after larger experience than ourselves, have not also taken time over this...
7.61.66
The new amendment to the Rules tries to shut out amendments which are supposed to be, or which are taken to be, merely verbal, grammatical, or formal. Verbal amendments, Sir, have been made often, not only by the other Members of this House, but also by the draftsmen themselves. If such a rule is to be in operation against only those who have n...

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8.96.26
, I beg to move:"That in clause (1) of Article 143, after the word 'head’ a comma be placed and the words 'who shall be responsible to the Governor and ‘shall' be inserted and the word ‘to’ be deleted."
8.96.142
As Mr. Kamath has tried to explain the genesis of this motion, may I be permitted to amplify a little bit all the same by pointing out that on a previous occasion, in connection with the President and the Prime Minister of the Union of India, I had tried to bring forward an Amendment of this nature, and that Amendment was rejected. At the time ...

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7.82.50
     So far as his emoluments are concerned, I think it would be proper if his emoluments are left not to be determined by order of the President, but by an act of Parliament as those the Ministers. The President would, it is quite true, act on the advice of the Ministers; but even so the salary and allowances of the Attorney-General should be ...
7.82.49
     I do not like even as it is the proviso of this article which would make the Attorney-General hold office during the pleasure of the President. But it may be that a convention would be established whereby the Attorney-General, as suggested in the preceding amendment, may form part of the cabinet, and may retire or take office along with th...

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9.120.142
    As the article is now proposed a President would be in a position to suspend even this right by an executive order. The amendment of Dr. Ambedkar suggests that having made the order he must place it before Parliament as soon after making it as possible. I confess, I do not see that this is any improvement over the original draft, because, ev...
9.120.147
    I realise, however, that in an emergency the officers of Government, both civil or military, may not be in a position to wait before taking action. They have to learn, however, that if we are going to live under a free democratic Constitution, whoever does a wrongful act will have to bear the consequences of that act. Anything that he might ...

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9.111.150
So long, therefore, as this provision remains in the manner in which it has now been put forward, so long as it is the power of the Executive only to make such an order, and suspend the fundamental rights in effect, so long, I think, this provision would be and must be objectionable.
9.111.147
It seems to me, incidentally, that this article is inconsistent in spirit, if not in letter, with the articles previously passed, which require that while all other powers and functions may be arrogated to himself by the President, or may be, delegated to some other authority named by him, the powers and authority of the High Courts will not be...

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9.115.39
 I do not think a provision of this kind will help either the requirements of economy, or, what is still more important, the requirements of popular sovereignty, as embodied in the Power of the Purse, as it is called, under the model we are copying--I mean the British Constitution. If, as these amendments propose, there is some chance given to P...
9.115.119
 : Mr. President, Sir, I agree that every act of borrowing is an executive act. But the power to borrow need not necessarily be regarded as an Executive power exclusively, subject to such limits, if any, as Parliament may from time to time place. From this point of view I would like to suggest that the borrowing power, or the use of the national...

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7.69.16
 Speaking of the languages of the various sections of the country, they have, in recent years, especially during the last two or three generations, been developed and cultivated up to a point at which many of them have become suitable, in my judgment, to become the vehicles for the imparting of any state of instruction, right up to the Universit...
7.69.18
 You cannot hit at this amendment, you cannot negative it, without at the same time annulling the remaining portion of the clause, namely, conservation of a static position. But development is more progressive, more dynamic; and as such should commend itself to those who have the drafting and piloting of the Constitution in their hands.

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8.100.219
    I do not wish that the withdrawal of the case must be compulsory or mandatory, but some discretion must be left, and the case may be withdrawn if the judge so decides, but not necessarily, as this article requires him to do as clear compulsion on the judge to ask the case to be withdrawn.
8.100.78
 Mr. President, Sir I beg to move:     "That the following new article 193-A article be added:-'193-A. No one who has been a Judge of the Supreme Court, or of the Federal Court or of any High Court for a period of 5 years continuously shall be appointed to any executive office under the Government of India of the Government of any State in the U...

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8.98.58
 : Sir, I beg to move:     'That after article 170, the following new article 170-A, be inserted :-     `170-A. It shall be open to the Legislature of any State to move the Supreme Court to restrain any other State from ill-treating or discriminating against or denying the Fundamental Rights of citizens to the individuals originating from the f...
8.98.70
  In view of the arguments advanced, I would request the House to give me permission to withdraw the amendment.The amendment was, by leave of the Assembly, withdrawn.Article 171

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9.109.247
 : Mr. President, I have been viewing the tendency, noticeable throughout this Draft Constitution, of arming the Central Executive Government with excessive authority, with deep misgivings. In this particular clause there seems to be incorporated even stronger authority and worse features of centralised authority than was found in the original ...
9.109.249
In the first place, Sir, the substitution of the term 'internal disturbance' for the original expression 'violence' fills me with deep concern and misgiving. These are terms not only very difficult to define; but the contrast, whatever may be the implication, seems to me to suggest unjustifiable invasion of democratic freedom. The slightest dis...

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8.94.63
Sir, this is very important because the practice has been all along, ever since the Finance Department has been organised, to have the Auditor-General appointed from the members of the Civil Service. The members of the Civil Service have a particular type of education, and develop a particular outlook which does not necessarily have specific ref...
8.94.62
  : Sir, I beg to move :     "That the following new article be added :-          '124-A. The Auditor-General shall be appointed from among persons qualified as  Registered Accountants or holding any other equivalent qualifications recognised as  such, and having not less than ten years' practice as such Auditors.'"

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8.99.232
It has been discussed, I know.
8.99.230
Yes, Sir.

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7.70.2
 Mr. Vice-President, Sir, I beg to move: "That under the heading "Right to Property" the following new article be added:'23-A. All forms of natural wealth, such as land, forests, mines and minerals, waters of rivers, lakes or seas surrounding the coasts of the Union shall belong to the people of India. No private property shall be allowed in any...
7.70.6
  :There is a misapprehension on the part of Mr. Das. This does not talk of nationalising all existing private property. I am only enunciating a principle which may in legal parlance be called the right of eminent domain of the State. Therefore it is merely an assertion that natural wealth belongs to the people, to the State. That does not mean ...

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3.21.15
No, Sir.
3.21.13
But as this raises many complicated issues, I do not move it but suggest that this should go back to the Advisory Committee.

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3.19.128
I do not move my amendment (No.18 of Supplementary List II ) at this stage.

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3.20.10
I do not propose to move the amendments in my name.
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