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Speaker

Giani Gurmukh Singh Musafir

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citizenship

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9.116.154
This clause will give citizenship to a class of persons to whom probably we would not like to give it. Mr. Amery, was also born in India in my District of Gorakhpur where his father was a Forest Conservator and his son John Amery will get our citizenship if he only stays here for some time before 26th January 1950, and we shall not be entitled t...
9.116.139
Permit me to add, Sir, that in this demand it is not that I am becoming self contradictory, because just a moment before I said that a person who has settled in India should be guarded against as much as we can by our Constitution, lest the privilege of such acquired citizenship be used to our prejudice. I am not debarred from making the suggest...

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9.117.13
Sir, now I would like to refer to two or three points discussed yesterday. Yesterday, the discussion centered round two topics. The first was that the definition of citizenship was too easy and cheap, and Dr. Deshmukh even said that it was ridiculously cheap. Another Member remarked that it was commonplace and easy. Those were the remarks made ...
9.117.199
The question is :     "That for articles 5 and 6, the following articles be substituted:-Citizens at the date of commencement of this Constitution.5. At the date of commencement of this Constitution, every person who has his domicile in the territory  of India and-(a)  who was born in the territory of India; or(b)  either of whose parents was b...

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10.154.547
Then, I also do not want to let remain any doubt or danger of any Government, this or future, to bargain or barter away the sovereignty of the country in the name of Commonwealth or common brotherhood or common citizenship or whatever it be. So the sovereignty must be vested in so many words in the people as a whole. In China in their Constitut...
10.154.188
Sir, the first clause 313A is a formal one. The second clause relates to clause 314 which in the draft Constitution has been left more or less blank after the words "This Constitution shall come into force on......". This clause puts in articles 5, 5A, 5AA and 5B relating to Citizenship, article 303 (Definitions) and articles 311, 311A and 312A...

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3.18.156
His son will become a citizen, but political rights are distinct from civic rights. There is no general rule of law that a citizen is entitled to political rights, because we know as a fact that according to the American law of citizenship the citizen is only entitled to civic rights. It does not stand in the, way of the Constitution being so fr...
3.18.149
Sir, this clause has been borrowed from the American Constitution. There are two ideas of citizenship. In the Continental countries citizenship is based upon race: it has nothing to do with the birth of a person in any particular place. In the Anglo-American system if a person is born in a particular place, he gets his citizenship. If you want t...

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3.21.105
Sir, as stated by Mr. Santhanam, if the position is left as it is, this clause will deprive many persons who are born in the Union, which is going to be defined later on,--I hope it will comprise all parts of India--of their rights of citizenship of the Union. What will be their position? I am born in Sind. Supposing Sind is not going to be par...
3.21.111
There is certainly some force in the objection raised by Mr. Santhanam. We do not want suddenly to disenfranchise any persons, possibly very distinguished people born in a Native State but today permanent residents of British India. Therefore, so far as that particular class is concerned, we might consider an appropriate formula. We may not be i...

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7.83.91
     It is true that the question relating to citizenship, that had been raised by me, has been answered to a certain extent by Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru. But I submit, Sir, that even if a few people only are likely to be adversely affected, it is desirable that ample provision may be made so that not even a single person entitled to be a voter m...
7.83.184
     Apart from this, Sir, unless you pass the citizenship clause, you cannot have an electoral roll of citizens. When the constituencies have not been delimited, I doubt very much if the words "resided in that constituency" have got nay meaning. After all, till the constituencies are delimited, we cannot know whether a person will reside in th...

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9.115.177
 : Now, Sir, this article refers to, citizenship not in any general sense but to citizenship on the date of the commencement of this Constitution. It is not the object of this particular article to lay down a permanent law of citizenship for this country. The business of laying down a permanent law of citizenship has been left to Parliament, and...
9.115.154
: Sir, May I give the references? The amendments of which notice has been given about the citizenship clause are spread over various lists, and I propose to give in the beginning to Members the references to the various lists. The first amendment is No. 1 of List I. Then come amendments Nos. 128, 129, 130, 131, 132 and 133 of List IV. These are...

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5.41.158
 There is one by Mr. Himmat Singh Maheshwri as follows:-     "Subject to the existing laws of a Federated State admission into, and emigration and expulsion from, the territories of the Federation pilgrimages to place outside the boundaries of India as they stood before the 15th August, 1947."
5.41.155
Sir, the other amendment by Mr. Mohammad Tahir is purely a question of cutting up this item into two. What he has argued is that pilgrimages to places beyond India have very little relation to the rest of this item. One possible justification for lumping these two things together would be that pilgrimages outside India are a form of temporary e...

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DCS.13
12. At the date of the commencement of the Constitution: (A) Every person domiciled in the territories subject to the jurisdiction of the Republic (a) who has been ordinarily resident in those territories for not less than five years immediately preceding that date; or (b) who, or whose parents, or either of whose parents, was or were born in In...
DCS.14
13. Subject to a Federal Law, which may be passed to avoid double citizenship, every person born, after the commencement of this Constitution, (a) of parents, at least one of whom was at the time of that person's birth a citizen of the Republic; or (b) in the territories of the Republic or on board a ship of the Republic, unless that person is a...

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7.51.71
Mr. Vice-President, Sir, a few days have passed since the Draft Constitution was introduced on the floor of this House by our able Law Minister and Chairman of the Drafting Committee, Dr. Ambedkar. During these few days, the Draft Constitution has met with scorching criticism at the hands of different members of this House. With the exception of...
7.51.45
This has resulted in confusion. For instance, take what was formerly called the Indian States and the British Indian Provinces. The way in which the two have been treated is scarcely just and equitable. We find that people who mainly fought for the achievement of Swaraj or self-rule have lesser power than the people of the States, who did not pa...

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7.63.269
With regard to the second point of Mr.Kamath, if I have understood him correctly, he asked whether this is a justiciable right. My reply to that is very simple: it is not a justiciable right. The non-acceptance of titles is a condition of continued citizenship; it is not a right, it is a duty imposed upon the individual that if he continues to b...
7.63.203
: I did not quite follow. I shall explain the purpose of this amendment. It is the feeling of many persons in this House that, since we have established a common citizenship throughout India, irrespective of the local jurisdiction of the provinces and the Indian States, it is only a concomitant thing that residence should not be required for hol...

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8.87.210
Mr. President, Sir, I move :"That for sub-clause (d) of clause (1) of article 83, the following be substituted :-'(d) if he has ceased to be a citizen of India, or has voluntarily acquired the citizenship of a foreign State, or is under any acknowledgment of allegiance or adherence to a foreign State and.'" (Amendment to Amendment No. 1581 was ...
8.87.213
Sir, I am following the sound maximum which I laid down a few minutes ago that as far as possible, we might dispense with needless verbiage and try to be as brief as possible, of course, without sacrificing the meaning or significance or importance of an article, and to compress it into as few words as possible. Brevity is not merely the soul o...

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8.97.388
My Friend, Mr. Tyagi, was also very much agitated over the question of who are to be regarded as foreign countries. I am sure about it that it is not the intention of my Friend, Mr. Tyagi, to involve me in any discussion about Commonwealth relationship which is a matter which has already been discussed and disposed of in the House, but I would ...
8.97.350
: Sir, I move:"That for sub-clause (d) of clause (1) of article 167, the following be substituted:`(d) if he has ceased to be a citizen of India or has voluntarily acquired the citizenship of a foreign State or is under any acknowledgement of allegiance or adherence to a foreign State.'"

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7.50.93
In the first place, I would like to draw the attention of the House to Part II-Citizenship. There are about 60 lakhs of people or more who have come from Western Pakistan, Sind, Baluchistan and East Bengal. These people are not aliens. If technically they are regarded as aliens, I do maintain that it is a sin to do so, because this situation has...
7.50.65
There is no doubt that it has not been considered necessary to differentiate between the minorities and the majority and the citizens have been considered citizens in a general sense but even then it has been accepted that if some educational institutions are run by the minorities, the State should be able to aid them. It means that under this D...

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11.164.222
  We should see that it is after remaining in bondage for thousands of years that we have achieved freedom. Just now the people have not even learnt to love their country and their nation. The conditions obtaining in the country at present are so bad that we begin to doubt whether we would be able to maintain our freedom and our democracy by eve...
11.164.91
  I have also heard the criticism that this Constitution has not laid down the duties of the citizen. It has laid down only the rights. I do not want to say much on the restrictions which have been placed on the Fundamental Rights. While claiming his rights under the Constitution the citizen should as well remember that he has got an obligation ...

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SM.14
1. All persons born or naturalised within its territories are citizens of the United States of India and of the State wherein they reside. Any privilege or disability arising out of rank, birth, person, family, religion or religious usage and custom is abolished.
SM.41
That Social Boycott, Promoting or Instigating a Social Boycott or Threatening a Social Boycott as defined below shall be declared to be an offence:  (i) Boycott Defined — A person shall be deemed to boycott another who — (a) Refuses to let or use or occupy any house or land, or to deal with, work for hire, or do business with another person, or...

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11.158.95
    Now in this Constitution, the redeeming feature is that of citizenship. It was a very ticklish question after the partition as to how to define the citizenship, and the Drafting Committee and others who have given their attention, they deserve credit. Those displaced persons have been straightaway told that even if their parents are born in ...
11.158.86
    And, corresponding to that naturally there is no suggestion at all about enunciating any set of Obligations or Duties which might make the people also realise that there is in consideration of the rights they enjoy also certain obligations of democratic citizenship that the citizens can learn to appreciate. You are not giving those rights in...

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7.61.7
I should like to associate the Government of India with the Statements made in the Eire and British Parliaments and to say that we are perfectly prepared to continue on a reciprocal basis the exchange of citizenship rights and privileges with Eire. What our future relationship with the Commonwealth is going to be is a matter which, the House kn...
7.61.4
In the course of the speech made by Mr. Costello, the Prime Minister of Eire, on the second reading of the Republic of Ireland Bill on the 24th November in the Dail, he said:     "In the new Bill provisions will be made to ensure that Commonwealth citizens shall be afforded comparable rights to those afforded to our citizens in the British Comm...

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7.48.206
The proposed Indian Constitution is a dual polity  with a single citizenship. There is only one citizenship for the whole of India. It is Indian citizenship. There is no State citizenship. Every Indian has the same rights of citizenship, no matter in what State he resides.
7.48.203
The points of difference between the American Federation and the Indian Federation are mainly two. In the U.S.A. this dual polity is followed by a dual citizenship. In the U.S.A. there is a citizenship of the U.S.A. But there is also a citizenship of the State. No doubt the rigours of this double citizenship are much assuaged by the fourteenth a...

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10.150.95
Another point which I want to refer to, Sir, is that the princes have been now given the right of citizenship and the right of rulership has perhaps been taken way from them in a way. This right of citizenship may also react against the people in some cases. I do not say that they should be refused human rights, but as restrictions have been pl...
10.150.135
A second point which he made was that the Princes should be denied the right of citizenship. We must realise once for all that every person born in India is a citizen of India. In making what Sardar called the 'bloodless revolution', we did not propose to produce outlaws. In view of what the Princes have done in the past and what they did in br...

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7.49.91
Well, you have already accepted it. You have accepted it in two different clauses on the basis of religion and language. Sir, while I say that in the Draft Constitution problems have been solved according to the exigencies of the time, I shall be failing in my duty, if I did not bring to your notice that in clause 13 relating to the fundamental ...
7.49.127
There are certain points here in which the House never gave its opinion. They were controversial. They were allowed to stand over, but still I welcome the new amendment to article 5 that the Drafting Committee has suggested. It should be further improved. I am referring to the definition of "citizenship". It requires closer examination. The Draf...

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11.156.398
     : I have given notice of an amendment to this article No. 608. I support the arguments of Mr. Kamath. I want clarification from the Drafting Committee as to why this proviso has been made. We have definitely stated yesterday that those who accept foreign citizenship their own citizenship will be affected. Those who accept citizenship of a f...
11.156.403
     : Sir, if my friend Mr. Sidhva were to refer to clause (12) of article 366 in the draft as revised by the Drafting Committee, he will notice that there is really nothing new in sub-clause (3) of article 367 which is the subject, matter of amendment No. 562-A. Article 366 is a definition article and clause (12) there attempts to define what ...

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8.84.83
      Sir, I wish to congratulate the Honourable the Prime Minister for the statesmanlike manner in which he has entered into the arrangement the Declaration of which this House is asked to ratify. It is a natural consequence of our declaring this country as a sovereign, independent Republic. No country in the world can afford today to live isol...
8.84.16
     The House will remember that there was some talk at one stage of a Commonwealth citizenship. Not it was difficult to understand what the contents of a Commonwealth citizenship might be, except that it meant that they were not completely foreign to one another. That un-foreignness remains, but I think it is as well that we left off talking a...

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3.19.16
What I was saying was this. There are some Afghan Princes in India who are banished by the Afghan Government and in league with the British Government of India they are to remain in India under certain conditions. They are the sons and grandsons of Afghan Princes, but they are not allowed to get any job in British India. Will they be allowed to ...
3.19.41
Mr. B. Das has some doubts about the Afghan Princes who have been deported from Afghanistan, and he wants to know whether they and their children will be eligible for office. I do not know that this is going to create any difficulty for us. If the children of the Afghan Princes propose to stay here, it is quite possible they will get themselves ...

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11.162.164
     In Part II, which defines citizenship, all persons born in India or who are bona fide residents of India or who have migrated from Pakistan and made India their home have been given equal recognition as citizens without distinction of religion, race, caste or class. Citizenship constitutes the rock foundation of our Constitution. All the ri...
11.162.187
     Then there was a charge that Gandhian principles have been sacrificed. I already submitted that we have embodied provisions for removal of untouchability for national language, for communal harmony and for goodwill and guarantees to minorities, encouragement of Gram Panchayats and village industries and for protection of milch cattle. These...

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11.163.66
  In regard to citizenship, the Constitution deliberately adopts the principle of single citizenship for the whole of India and departs from a dual citizenship, a common feature of many Federations. In this respect the Indian Constitution is in advance of some of the Federal Constitutions. It is hoped that that will lead to the consolidation of ...
11.163.2
I would now like to refer to article 5 relating to Citizenship. The community to whom I belong consider this of vital importance, and I feel it is my duty to mention here that one-third of the total population of Gurkhas have come and settled down in India. According to census figures, out of one crore, about 67.5 lakhs are in Nepal and the res...

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CIB.28
27. The rights of an Indian citizenship are lost by (1) Those who become naturalised in a foreign country; (2) Those who without the licence of the Government of India accept any office, pension or honour, from any foreign Government; (3) Those sentenced to banishment.
CIB.4
3. In this Act, unless there be something repugnant in the subject or context: (a) The Parliament of India means an Assembly of representatives -- official as well as non-official -- of the Indian Nation. (b) The word "District" shall include the capital of a Province. (c) The word "laws" includes Civil, Criminal, Revenue, Ecclesiastical or Mili...

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11.160.89
    The next point I wish to speak about, Sir, is regarding citizenship. In the matter of citizenship we have made man and woman equal. A man who marries an alien still holds the citizenship and a woman who may marry an alien also must have her own citizenship kept. There should be no difference at all. If there is no difference between man and ...
11.160.116
    After all a Constitution is but a paper document. It is the way in which it is worked that will determine its success or its failure. We are the framers of this Constitution and in our humble way, as a compromise amongst so many, we have done the best that we could have perhaps, although we must consider that there are many flaws left. But i...

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11.159.155
Our provisions relating to citizenship are very generous and they extend citizenship not only to persons having domicile in India but also to five or six millions of persons who having been uprooted from Pakistan have migrated to India. Even the persons who had migrated to Pakistan but have again returned back to India under a permit for resettl...
11.159.14
Sir, in the definition of citizen, of course it has been conceived in the, best of spirits, but there is a subtle loop-hole where we may run around ourselves. If a man comes six months before the 19th July and is registered by the officers appointed by the Government of India, he can be a citizen. But when you apply this to a province like Assam...

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7.52.57
 Turning to the citizenship clause, I think there should be a categorical statement in it about a single uniform citizenship with equal rights and privileges. As rights involve responsibilities, so it is necessary that the obligations of citizenship should also be enumerated in this Clause.
7.52.73
I then come to the question of minorities. I am sorry that Dr. Ambedkar made the statement that minorities are an explosive force which if it erupts can blow up the whole fabric of the State. I say that these minorities can do nothing of the sort. The reason is simple--they are not factual, they are a mere fiction having no existence. I throw t...

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SR.95
“The Eastern vision of our political future in not a dictatorship of the intellectuals, a bourgeois oligarchy, or a proletariat autocracy, jealous of its class privileges and superimposed upon passive and inarticulate millions, but of peasant democracy rising layer after layer from the old and essential local and functional groupings, growing fr...
SR.14
But what is the End of the State? This question is, indeed, pivot on which political thought has been continuously revolving from ancient times to this day. To the Greeks, ‘the State was the supreme fact of life, and the efforts and actions of individuals had to flow into it just as a river flows into the sea.[8] To the Athenians, citizenship wa...

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4.31.154
  Mr President, Sir, I had myself brought an amendment that in these matters the representatives of the people in the States, may have a voice but I withdrew that amendment because an amendment by Sir N. Gopalaswamy Ayyangar was accepted by the Ministers of the-States. In this I see the dawn of a new era in the States. I hope the ministers have...
4.31.151
  Mr. President, the remarks made by the last speaker asking for a minimum of democracy in the constituent units of the Federation is one on which I hope there will be no difference of opinion in this House. There are certain standards, and certain measures which are regarded as the bare minimum, as the sine qua non of a decent existence; and i...

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7.65.111
     Good citizenship implies restrictions:  "SATYAM BRUYAT PRIYAM BRUYAT NA BRUYAT SATYAMAPRIYAM"
7.65.126
Sir, I do not say that this article is perfectly worded; nor can I maintain that the exceptions to parts of this article provided by clauses (2), (3), (4), (5) and (6) do not curtail the liberty and the right conceded to individual citizens in clause (1). But, as a student of politics, I have to realise that there can be no absolute right and ev...

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9.118.140
     As it is, the House is asked to sign a blank cheque on the understanding that the Governor-General will do the needful. If we could utilise the Governor-General like this the Legislatures and the Constituent Assembly would be useless. I submit that the name of the Governor-General should not be introduced like this to lend weight to an absu...
9.118.141
     If there is to be election in West Bengal I think it should be held without delay. This is not a general election but an interim one. If the Ministry has lost public confidence the best thing is to let them go to the electorate and stay or quit according to the result. As this would be, an emergency election, it should be carried on with th...

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5.36.6
To all the minorities in India we give the assurance that they will receive fair and just treatment and there will be no discrimination in any form against them. Their religion, their culture and their language are safe and they will enjoy all the rights and privileges of citizenship, and will be expected in their turn to render loyalty to the c...
5.36.10
Mr. President, many years ago we had made a tryst with destiny itself. We had taken a pledge, a vow. Now the time has come to redeem it. But perhaps the pledge has not yet been redeemed fully though stages have been reached in that direction. We have almost attained independence. At such a moment, it is only appropriate that we take a new pledge...

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CFI.1
Article I. This Constitution is promulgated with the purpose of establishing the following rights, and enforcing the following fundamental principles of democratic freedom.(a) The supreme sovereignty belongs to the entire people, and shall be exercised directly through the control of the executive as well as the legislative functions of the Sta...
CFI.18
Article 18. All the component units of the Federal Union of India shall be uniformly democratic according to the principles declared in Chapter I of this Constitution. Every component unit of the Federal Union shall also establish the Rights of Citizenship proclaimed in Chapter I of this Constitution.

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8.85.90
Then the only question that has been sometimes debated is, 'Why not we stand aloof altogether? Why not we take up the position which Ireland has taken?' The one point which we have to remember in this connection is that Ireland may be in a position to get all the advantages of citizenship everywhere having regard to the fact that her kith and k...
8.85.154
The question is:That in the motion, for the words "do hereby ratify" the words "has carefully considered" be substituted andThat the following be added at the end of the motion:"and is of opinion that membership of the Commonwealth is incompatible with India's new status of Sovereign Independent Republic. Besides, the terms of membership are de...

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7.58.103
The question is:     "That in article 36, the words `Every citizen is entitled to free primary education and' be deleted."
7.58.18
We have given the villager only the right of vote. And this too we have given him only to take back after every five years - he will give us his vote. He is only the custodian of the right of vote; and we being his leaders he must return the vote to us at the time of elections. We are always their leaders. Sir, I have had experience of Legislat...

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11.155.307
     My submission is that those fundamental rights as a matter of' fact constitute the minimum and fundamentally characteristic rights of any person living in India. Every inhabitant of India has got the right to trade in any part of India as an incident of his citizenship. This is only restricted by clause (6), whereas according to article 302...
11.155.307
     My submission is that those fundamental rights as a matter of' fact constitute the minimum and fundamentally characteristic rights of any person living in India. Every inhabitant of India has got the right to trade in any part of India as an incident of his citizenship. This is only restricted by clause (6), whereas according to article 302...

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5.45.26
Mr. President, as I have understood, the object of this Committee is to proceed immediately with the business that has been adopted by this House. That is to say, all the proposals that this House has considered as far as the Union and Provincial constitutions are concerned, will be duly framed, excepting those subjects, namely language, citize...
5.45.19
I support the amendment of Mr. Kher, but I should also like to have some information upon a few important points. We have left certain material particulars undecided in this House so far. For instance, we have yet to decide upon the definition of citizenship, upon the procedure for change of constitution, upon the emergency powers and upon the ...

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7.62.90
The rage for equality which has led to provide equal citizenship and equal rights for women has sometimes found exception in regard to special provisions that, in the long range, in the interest of the country or of the race, exclude women from certain dangerous occupations, certain types of work. That, I take it, is not intended in any way to ...
7.62.59
The excuse is often made that a given institution is maintained, or at least initially founded, by some donations of a munificent member of a given community, and that in his original deed of trust setting up the institution and providing the funds, he makes it a condition that only members of a given community or members of a given caste or su...

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7.80.58
     Sir, I submit that the whole of the Government of India Act of 1935 is based upon a foolish theory of the dominion-hood of India. Every word of that Act is based upon that theory, and if we have to carry out our determination and achieve the objects set out in Objectives Resolution, I think there is no occasion, and it will be simply a was...

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NR.3
3. The word “citizen” wherever it occurs in this constitution means every person Explanation:- No person who is a citizen of a foreign country can be a citizen of the Commonwealth unless he renounces the citizenship of such foreign country in the manner prescribed by law.

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11.161.198
When the British quitted this country they granted complete Independence to all the princely potentates of this land. They declared that the treaties which had been entered into with the princes would lapse on their departure and that the prices would become completely sovereign and free. These princes then had before them a great temptation of ...

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5.46.26
Sir, when the first draft of the Fundamental Rights was discussed on the floor of this House I expressed gave doubts about Clause 3 regarding citizenship. After Ad hoc Committee redrafted it and it was presented to the House for acceptance by the Honourable Sardar Patel. At the time when the Ad hoc Committee's Report was presented I had my doubt...

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9.143.470
     Sir, I wish to protect the Constitution wherever we have conferred any rights on our people, whether they are rights of citizenship, Fundamental Rights or they are consequential rights. For that purpose I have suggested amendment No. 212. It provides that it will be ultra vires of any Parliament to bring forward a Bill by which an amendment...

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4.27.196
Part II dealing with Citizenship has not been finally decided yet by the Sub-Committee and Part III dealing with Fundamental Rights has already been considered by this House and passed. I would therefore suggest that we might begin consideration of this Report from Part IV. Chapter I, The Federal Executive. There are one or two minor matters wh...

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7.68.252
: Sir, I beg to move:   "That for article 23, the following article be substituted :--'23. Without detriment to the spiritual heritage and the cultural unity of the country, which the State shall recognise, protect and nourish, any section of the citizens residing in the territory of India or any part thereof, claiming to have a distinct langua...

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9.133.105
     I am not concerned with the terminology. I am speaking of Assam and other areas for the moment. The difference seems to be this. The tribal people in areas other than Assam are more or less Hinduised, more or less assimilated with the civilization and culture of the majority of the people in whose midst they live. With regard to the tribals...

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11.157.367
: The question is :     "That in article 9 after the word and figure 'article' the words 'or be deemed to be a citizen of India by virtue of' be inserted." The amendment was adopted.

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4.24.107
Sir, I beg to move:     "Every citizen of the Federation of India who has reached his 35th year of age shall be eligible for election as Governor."

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7.57.37
I do not know whether it is fully appreciated that this kind of perpetration is within the power of the expert to achieve; and as I do not wish the Constitution to lead to this kind of expert technical perfection, I wish to substitute the words "every citizen" for the words "the citizens", which will leave no room for doubt in the matter.

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10.153.164
: Sir, article 16 constitutes one of the provisions which are under the purview of article 25 and this was a very important Fundamental Right possessed by the citizens that intercourse throughout the territory of India shall be free. It ensures that provincial boundaries shall not hamper any kind of movement and every person shall be able to e...

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7.73.274
My friend who spoke last was pleased to refer to me as one who was closely connected with Mahatma Gandhi out of the Members of the Constituent Assembly. I do not know whether it is true. But, I myself have felt--I am free to confess--that we are emphasising the absence of God in this Constitution too much. My opinion was that we should have His...

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9.129.210
    I will give you one instance. There is a provision in the United States Constitution to the effect that judges shall get a fixed salary and their salary shall not be diminished during the term of office. In the very early stages of the history of the United States Supreme Court the view was taken by the judges themselves that their salaries ...

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SCR.34
A comprehensive declaration of fundamental rights should be incorporated in the future constitution of India assuring (a) the liberties of the individual; (b) the freedom of Press and association; (c) equality of rights of citizenship of all nationals irrespective of birth, religion, colour, caste or creed; (d) full religious toleration, includ...

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9.132.225
The Negroes in America, after more than a hundred years of fighting have not yet been fully enfranchised to the extent that a citizen in America is today, what to speak of other States wherein they are undergoing immense sufferings! We have declared at the top of our voice that every person in India, be he male or female, irrespective of class,...

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11.165.295
      : [[Mr. President, many honourable Members here have expressed their great disappointment with this Constitution and have remarked that it is nothing but a fantastic mixture of the different Constitutions of the World. But, Sir, I am not aware of any constitution nor of any country which has not made use of the good provisions of the other...

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PDSC.4
The Working Committee of the All-India Scheduled Caste Federation, while it is most eager for a settlement of the Communal problem, wholly disapproves of the secret negotiations which are being carried on by Mr, Gandhi and Mr, Jinnah for a settlement between the Hindus and the Muslims, The Working Committee is of opinion "that Communal settlemen...

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CLS.46
2. Indians should be placed on a footing of equality in respect of status and rights of citizenship with other subjects of His Majesty the King throughout the Empire.

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MSC.43
Chapter X - Fundamental Rights and Duties of Citizenship

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3.20.68
I submit that we ought not to rest content with that kind of reasoning which the Supreme Court in India may adopt or may not adopt. Therefore, my, suggestion is this, that, just as in the case of the other clause dealing with citizenship you were good enough to remit the matter to a small committee to have it further examined. It will be desirab...

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5.37.38
It is undoubtedly a day of rejoicing. But there is only one thought which mars and detracts from the fullness of this happy event. India, which was made by God and Nature to be one, which culture and tradition and history of millenniums have made one, is divided today and many there are on the other side of the boundary who would much rather be ...

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5.43.100
I know and I am fully conscious that a great body of this House is opposed to separate electorates. Considering the short shrift that this demand received in the sub-committee and in the Advisory Committee on minorities, I had very little hope that we shall be listened to here but whether we are listened to or not, that is not the point. The que...

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7.55.163
Sir, Part IV consists of Directive Principles. There are not very many amendments to this Part. Part II relates to Citizenship and Part III relates to Fundamental Rights which are of a justiciable nature. A number of amendments have been tabled to these two Parts. To bring about agreement as to which amendments have to be moved and which need n...
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