Jawaharlal Nehru was born on 14th November 1889 in Allahabad. He was a barrister trained in Cambridge. After his return from London in 1912, Nehru enrolled himself as an advocate of the Allahabad High Court.
Nehru’s contributions to Indian freedom movement include: leading the Non-Cooperation movement and the Kisan movement in the United Provinces in 1920, participating in the protest against the Simon Commission in 1928, moving of the the Purna Swaraj Declaration in 1930, leading the Civil Disobedience movement in United Provinces in 1930 and participating in the Quit India movement in 1942.
He held the post of the President of the Indian National Congress many times and was the Prime Minister during the interim Indian Government in 1946.
Nehru was elected to the Constituent Assembly from United Provinces on a Congress Party ticket and held important positions that included being Chairman of the following committees: States Committee, Union Powers Committee and the Union Constitution Committee.
During the initial stages of the Constitution-making process, Nehru moved the ‘Objectives Resolution’ in the Constituent Assembly, which proposed principles that that were to inform the Indian Consitution; The Preamble of the Consitution draws much of its text from this Resolution. Nehru's other notable moments in the Constituent Assembly include his 'Tryst with Destiny' speech and his presentation the Indian national flag to the Constituent Assembly for its approval.
Nehru served as India’s Prime Minister for 17 years from 1947 to 1962. As Prime Minister, he played a critical role in the Indian economy: he was instrumental in the adoption of import substitution and the development of the heavy industries sector.
He established many academic institutions that included: the All India Institute of Medical Sciences, the Indian Institutes of Technology, the Indian Institutes of Management and the National Institutes of Technology.
Nehru played a critical role in India adopting an independent foreign policy through its support and membership of the Non-Allignment movement. However, his handling of the India-China relationship during the early late 1950s and early 1960s was considered a failure.
He died on 27th May 1967 in New Delhi due to coronary thrombosis.
Nehru's notable works include: Towards freedom; the Autobiography of Jawaharlal Nehru; The Discovery of India; Glimpses of World History.