Jawaharlal Nehru was a barrister trained in Cambridge. He belonged to the United Provinces. Upon returning from London in 1912, Nehru enrolled himself as an advocate of the Allahabad High Court. He led the Non Cooperation movement in the United Provinces in 1920. In 1923, Nehru became the General Secretary of the All India Congress Committee in September 1923. He held the post of the President of the Congress numerous times, then acted as Prime Minister during the interim Indian Government and finally went on to become the first Prime Minister of independent India.
His contributions to the Indian economy included import substitution, industrialization, establishing and developing the heavy industries sector as well as building a mixed economy. This involved the government controlled public sector co-existing with the private sector. His government directed investment primarily into key public sector industries of steel, iron, coal, and power. They promoted their development with subsidies and protectionist policies. Nehru was also responsible for a successful land reform which abolished giant landholdings.
Agricultural production expanded until the early 1960s under his governance. Nehru's role in establishing agricultural universities further contributed to the Green Revolution in the 1960s. On front of education, he is known for establishing various academic institutions including: All India Institute of Medical Sciences, the Indian Institutes of Technology, the Indian Institutes of Management, the National Institutes of Technology. Nehru also spearheaded five-year plans to guarantee free and compulsory primary education for all indian children and supported setting up adult education centres, and vocational and technical schools for adults.
The policy of Non-alignment and the Non-Aligned Movement it sparked can also be attributed to Nehru's prowess. In 1948, he established the Atomic Energy Commission of India (AEC). Following this, in 1954, India signed the Five Principles of Peaceful Coexistence or Panchsheel, a set of principles to govern relations between the two states.