The first formal demand for the Constituent Assembly was made at the Swaraj Party Conference on 3rd May, 1934 which rejected the White Paper proposals (which was incorporated in the Government of India Act, 1935). The task of creating a Constitution for India began much before the actual date of Independence. Most of the energies of the Independence movement were channelized towards proclaiming self-rule for Indians and the ousting of the British. But a parallel discourse, one that took the form of the language of constitutional rights would also emerge, manifesting in outright demands for a constitution to be crafted by Indians for themselves.

The plan formulated by the Cabinet Mission (comprising of Frederick Pethick-Lawrence, the Secretary of State and two cabinet ministers Sir Stanfford Cripps and A.V. Alexander) famously know as the Cabinet Mission Plan, 1946 created the Constituent Assembly of India. The Assembly was recognized by Section 8 of the Indian Independence Act, 1947.

On 9th December 1946, the Constituent Assembly of India met for the first time in the Constitution Hall now popularly referred to as Central Hall of Parliament House. 207 members were present who signed the register and submitted their credentials. As of December 1947, the Assembly had 299 members: 229 members elected from 12 Indian Provinces and 70 members nominated from 29 Princely States. 15 women representatives were a part of the Assembly.

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